Rural America Got Fracked
Our World – United Nations University
The Conservative vision of the UK.
The UK has people Mr Clark. We do not have the vast expanses of land that the USA has. The UK government wants this abomination next to our homes, our schools.
A little light reading Mr Clark.
Risks and Concerns of Fracking
Contamination of groundwater
Methane pollution and its impact on climate change
• Air pollution impacts
• Exposure to toxic chemicals
• Blowouts due to gas explosion
• Waste disposal
• Large volume water use in water-deficient regions
• Fracking-induced earthquakes
• Workplace safety
• Infrastructure degradation
Commonly used chemicals used include:
In addition to the chemicals injected into the wells during the fracking process, other chemicals are released from the shale, including these:
Overall, the data showed emissions from the shale gas industry increased
. nitrogen dioxides
• particulate matter
• sulfur dioxide
• volatile organic compounds, or VOCs
• carbon dioxide (CO2)
Pollutant: Particulate matter
• What it is: Mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets in the air that can be composed of many different types of materials. PM 10: Inhalable particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter, found near roadways and dusty industries. PM 2.5: Inhalable particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter; generally found in smoke and haze, emitted from natural sources like forest fires and industrial combustion sources, or formed when gases react in the air.
• Health problems shown by studies: Irritation of the airways, coughing, and difficulty breathing, reduced lung function, aggravated asthma, chronic bronchitis, irregular heartbeat, nonfatal heart attacks, some cancers.
• Source: http://www.epa.gov/pm/
Pollutant: Carbon Monoxide (CO)
• What it is: Colorless, odorless gas emitted from combustion process.
• Health problems shown by studies: CO can cause harmful health effects by reducing oxygen delivery to the body’s organs (like the heart and brain) and tissues. At extremely high levels, CO can cause death.
• Source: http://www.epa.gov/airquality/carbonmonoxide/health.html
Pollutant: Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)
• What it is: Nitrogen oxides come from various sources, including emissions from cars, trucks and buses, power plants, off-road equipment, and agricultural sources. Nitrogen oxides includes nitrogen dioxide.
• Health problems shown by studies: Nitrogen oxides are linked with adverse effects on the respiratory system and can contribute to adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects associated with exposure to ozone and fine particles.
• Source: http://www.epa.gov/oaqps001/nitrogenoxides/
Pollutant: VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds)
• What it is: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids. VOCs are emitted by a variety of products numbering in the thousands. Examples include: paints and lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials and furnishings, office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper, graphics and craft materials including glues and adhesives, permanent markers, and photographic solutions.
• Health problems shown by studies: Eye, nose, and throat irritation, headaches, loss of coordination, nausea, damage to liver, kidney, and central nervous system. Some organics can cause cancer in animals; some are suspected or known to cause cancer in humans. Key signs or symptoms associated with exposure to VOCs include conjunctival irritation, nose and throat discomfort, headache, allergic skin reaction, dyspnea, declines in serum cholinesterase levels, nausea, emesis, epistaxis, fatigue, dizziness.
The ability of organic chemicals to cause health effects varies greatly from those that are highly toxic to those with no known health effect. As with other pollutants, the extent and nature of the health effect will depend on many factors including level of exposure and length of time exposed.
• Source: http://www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/volatile-organic-compounds-impact-indoor-air-quality
Pollutant: Sulfur oxides (SOx)
• What it is: Sulfur oxides come from fossil fuel combustion by power plants, large industries, and mobile
sources, and from some industrial processes. Sulfur oxides include sulfur dioxide (SO2).
• Health problems shown by studies: Sulfur oxides are linked with adverse effects on the respiratory system and can contriubute to adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects associated with exposure to ozone and fine particles.
• Source: http://www3.epa.gov/airquality/sulfurdioxide/
Pollutant: Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs)
• What it is: EPA is required to control 187 hazardous air pollutants. See the EPA’s list of HAPS: http://www.epa.gov/airtoxics/188polls.html
• Health problems shown by studies: Hazardous air pollutants, also known as toxic air pollutants or air toxics, are those pollutants that cause or may cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental and ecological effects.
• Source: http://www3.epa.gov/airtoxics/hlthef/hapindex.html
• What it is: Benzene is found in the air from emissions from burning coal and oil, gasoline service stations, and motor vehicle exhaust.
• Health problems shown by studies: Acute (short-term) inhalation exposure of humans to benzene may cause drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, as well as eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritation, and, at high levels, unconsciousness. Chronic (long-term) inhalation exposure has caused various disorders in the blood, including reduced numbers of red blood cells and aplastic anemia, in occupational settings. Reproductive effects have been reported for women exposed by inhalation to high levels, and adverse effects on the developing fetus have been observed in animal tests. Increased incidence of leukemia (cancer of the tissues that form white blood cells) have been observed in humans occupationally exposed to benzene. EPA has classified benzene as known human carcinogen for all routes of exposure.
• Source: http://www.epa.gov/airtoxics/hlthef/benzene.html
Do you really want this for your fellow citizens Mr Clark?
Pollution knows no boundaries, this will affect millions of people.
Begin this madness and there will be no going back, the damage is forever.
Is this to be your legacy Mr Clark?
I have enclosed a leaflet for you Mr Clark.
The leaflet was produced by Local Anti-Fracking Groups to Highlight just how ‘non intrusive’ seismic surveys are.
All the fields in our area have been left in this ‘non intrusive’ state.
INEOS, although attempts were made to prosecute anyone they thought had even looked at their equipment in the wrong way, quite obviously do not care enough about their equipment to take it away with them, preferring to litter our environment with abandoned equipment.
End the Madness
Poster courtesy Frack Free Nottinghamshire.